Principle of double effect

Equally, Kagan argues, we should say that it is intended in this case p. We may, however, tolerate it as remote mediate material cooperation, but only when there is a serious proportion, as discussed under no. Assisted suicide and euthanasia are defined as "a deliberate act that causes death undertaken by one person with the primary intention of ending the life of another person, in order to relieve that person's suffering.

Doctrine of double effect

Donating money to charity is good; using mint toothpaste instead of another flavor is morally neutral. Third, the bad consequence, the shortening of life, must not be primarily intended as either an end or a means; rather, the primary intent must be the legitimate aim of relieving pain.

For the doctrine to apply, the bad result must not be the means of achieving the good one. If I give the patient a fatal dose of pain-killing drugs and they would have recovered from their disease or injury if I hadn't given them the drugs, it's no use saying that my intention was to relieve their pain.

The patient must be in a terminal condition: Print this page Doctrine of double effect This doctrine says that if doing something morally good has a morally bad side-effect, it's ethically OK to do it providing the bad side-effect wasn't intended.

The tactical bomber aims at military targets while foreseeing that bombing such targets will cause civilian deaths.

The 'Principle of Double Effect'

Is it always wrong to kill another person, or is it only wrong to intentionally do so. Yet the first assumption is false. Providing necessary pain relief, even if it shortens life, fulfils all of these conditions; euthanasia fulfils none of them.

For instance, saying that patients must be offered all treatment necessary to relieve their pain, even if that treatment could or would shorten life, or they must be offered all treatment necessary to relieve their suffering, may seem the same.

These theories denied that any act was intrinsically evil by its object alone, apart from its intention and circumstances. In any case, these conditions make death inevitable.

Harm to medicine also harms society. Another common example of cumulative effect is that telling one sexist joke at work has little or no effect, but an ongoing pattern of telling sexist jokes constitutes harassment. It is clear that he was speaking within the context of the Catholic moral tradition outlined above, and not in support of a utilitarian ethic.

Terminal Sedation Some doctors use the deliberate sedation of patients to deep unconsciousness for the purpose of relieving suffering. To kill a person whom you know to be plotting to kill you would be impermissible because it would be a case of intentional killing; however, to strike in self-defense against an aggressor is permissible, even if one foresees that the blow by which one defends oneself will be fatal.

Foley K, Hendin H, editors. For example, if an army base in the middle of a city is bombed and a few civilians living nearby are killed as well, nothing unethical has been done, because the army base was a legitimate target and the death of civilians was not the intention of the bombing even though their death could be predicted.

The Principle of Double Effect

Patients receiving palliative care whose pain can be adequately treated with opioid drugs may well value additional days, hours or minutes of life. Moreover, death was caused by a drug supplied or administered by the GP in 5.

Some opponents of the principle of double effect do indeed deny that the distinction between intended and merely foreseen consequences has any moral significance. Taking into account the probability that end of life hastened by: The Sulmasy test Daniel P.

Deadly Effect Euthanasia advocates argue that if it is justifiable and acceptable for doctors to be immune from prosecution in using TS, when death is the secondary effect, then it should be allowable to use TS when the primary purpose is to hasten death.

The Principle of Double Effect

If he could attain the good effect without the bad effect he should do so. Sometimes we have situations where each individual behavior has good consequences, but where the total result of large numbers of people making the same choice has horrible consequences.

Delaney, Neil Francis, Other philosophers say that the Doctrine of Double Effect assumes that we think that death is always bad. An essential component of TS is also the withdrawal of all treatment, including even food and water, so that death occurs as soon as possible.

The 'Principle of Double Effect' was developed by Roman Catholic moral theologians of the 16th and 17th centuries. According to the principle of double effect, it is morally permissible to perform an act that has both a good effect and a bad effect if all of the following conditions are met.

The name 'Double Effect' comes from the fact that the action in question is thought to have two effects: a good one (intended) and a bad one (merely foreseen). It may sound esoteric, but this principle has many vitally important applications: for example in.

The doctrine (or principle) of double effect is often invoked to explain the permissibility of an action that causes a serious harm, such as the death of a human being, as a side effect of promoting some good end.

Doctrine of Double Effect

Dec 17,  · The doctrine of double effect. This doctrine says that if doing something morally good has a morally bad side-effect it's ethically OK to do it providing the bad side-effect wasn't intended. The Principle of Double Effect is used to determine when an action which has two effects, one good and one evil, may still be chosen without sin.

This principle is attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas, who used it to show that killing in self-defense is justified (Summa Theologiae I-II q64 art. 7). With. Things to consider for the principle of double effect Consideration in Double Effect in which the benefit is equal t Consideration in Double Effect in which the benefits must come.

Principle of double effect
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Doctrine of Double Effect (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)